The last chapter showed how Java's architecture makes it a useful tool for developing software in a networked environment. The next three chapters take a closer look at how Java's architecture accomplishes its suitability for networks. This chapter examines platform independence in detail. It shows how Java's architecture enables programs to run on any platform, discusses the factors that determine the true portability of Java programs, and looks at the relevant tradeoffs.
Why Platform Independence?
One of the key reasons Java technology is useful in a networked environment is that Java makes it possible to create binary executables that will run unchanged on multiple platforms. This is important in a networked environment because networks usually interconnect many different kinds of computers and devices. In a typical enterprise environment, for example, a network might connect Macintoshes in the art department, UNIX workstations in engineering, and PCs running Windows everywhere else. Although this arrangement enables various kinds of computers and devices within the company to share data, it requires a great deal of administration. Such a network presents a system administrator with the task of keeping different platform-specific editions of programs up to date on many different kinds of computers. Programs that can run without change on any networked computer, regardless of the computer's type, make the system administrator's job simpler, especially if those programs can actually be delivered across the network.
In addition, the emerging proliferation of network-enabled embedded devices represents another environment in which Java's platform independence is useful. In the workplace, for example, various kinds of embedded devices, such as printers, scanners, and fax machines, are typically connected to the internal network. Network-connected embedded devices have also appeared in consumer domains, such as the home and car. In the embedded world, Java's platform independence can also help simplify system administration. Jini technology, which aims to bring plug and play to the network, simplifies the task of administering a dynamic environment of network-connected embedded devices for both consumers at home and systems administrators at work. Once a device is plugged into the network, it can access other devices attached to the network, and other devices can access it. To achieve this ease of connectivity, Jini-enabled devices exchange objects across the network, a technique that would be impossible without Java's support for platform independence.
From the developer's perspective, Java can reduce the cost and time required to develop and deploy applications on multiple platforms. Even though historically, many (or most) applications have been supported on only one platform, often the reason was that the cost involved in supporting multiple platforms wasn't worth the added return. Java can help make multi-platform support affordable for more types of programs.
On the other hand, Java's platform independence can act as a disadvantage as well as an advantage for software developers. If you are developing and selling a software product, Java's support for platform independence can help you to compete in more markets. Instead of developing a product that runs only on Windows, for example, you can write one that runs on Windows, OS/2, Solaris, and Linux. With Java, you can have more potential customers. The trouble is, so can everyone else. Imagine, for example, that you have focused your efforts on writing great software for Solaris. Java makes it easier for others to write software that competes in your chosen market niche. With Java, therefore, you may not only end up with more potential customers, but also with more potential competitors.
But perhaps most significantly for developers, the fact that Java code can run unchanged on multiple platforms gives the network a homogeneous execution environment that enables new kinds of distributed systems built around network-mobile objects. APIs such as object serialization, RMI (Remote Method Invocation), and Jini take advantage of this underlying capability to bring object-oriented programming out of the virtual machine and onto the network. (More information on Jini is given in Chapter 4, Network Mobility.)
Java's Architectural Support for Platform Independence
Support for platform independence, like support for security and network-mobility, is spread throughout Java's architecture. All the components of the architecture--the language, the class file, the API, and the virtual machine--play a role in enabling platform independence.
The Java Platform
Java's architecture supports the platform independence of Java programs in several ways, but primarily through the Java Platform itself. The Java Platform acts as a buffer between a running Java program and the underlying hardware and operating system. Java programs are compiled to run on a Java virtual machine, with the assumption that the class files of the Java API will be available at run-time. The virtual machine runs the program; the API gives the program access the underlying computer's resources. No matter where a Java program goes, it need only interact with the Java Platform. It needn't worry about the underlying hardware and operating system. As a result, it can run on any computer that hosts a Java Platform.
The Java Language
The Java programming language reflects Java's platform independence in one principal way: the ranges and behavior of its primitive types are defined by the language. In languages such as C or C++, the range of the primitive type int is determined by its size, and its size is determined by the target platform. The size of an int in C or C++ is generally chosen by the compiler to match the word size of the platform for which the program is compiled. This means that a C++ program might have different behavior when compiled for different platforms merely because the ranges of the primitive types are not consistent across the platforms. For example, no matter what underlying platform might be hosting the program, an int in Java behaves as a signed 32-bit two's complement number. A float adheres to the 32-bit IEEE 754 floating point standard. This consistency is also reflected in the internals of the Java virtual machine, which has primitive data types that match those of the language, and in the class file, where the same primitive data types appear. By guaranteeing that primitive types behave the same on all platforms, the Java language itself promotes the platform independence of Java programs.
The Java Class File
As mentioned in the previous chapter, the class file defines a binary format that is specific to the Java virtual machine. Java class files can be generated on any platform. They can be loaded and run by a Java virtual machine that sits on top of any platform. Their format, including the big-endian order of multi-byte values, is strictly defined and independent of any platform that hosts a Java virtual machine.
One aspect of Java's support for platform independence is its scaleability. The Java Platform can be implemented on a wide range of hosts with varying levels of resources, from embedded devices to mainframe computers.
Even though Java first came to prominence by riding on top of a wave that was crashing through the desktop computer industry, the World Wide Web, Java was initially envisioned as a technology for embedded and consumer devices, not desktop computers. Part of the early reasoning behind Java was that although Microsoft and Intel had a dominant clutch on the desktop market, no such dominance existed in the embedded and consumer systems markets. Microprocessors had been appearing in device after device for years--audio-video equipment, cell phones, printers, fax machines, copiers--and the coming trend was that, increasingly, embedded microprocessors would be connected to networks. An original design goal of Java, therefore, was to provide a way for software to be delivered across networks to any kind of embedded device--independent of its microprocessor and operating system.
To accomplish this goal, the Java runtime system (the Java Platform) had to be compact enough to be implemented in software using the resources available to a typical embedded system. Embedded microprocessors often have special constraints, such as small memory footprint, no hard disk, a non- graphical display, or no display. These constraints mean that embedded and consumer systems usually don't have the need, or the memory, to support the full Java API.
To address the special requirements of embedded and consumer systems, Sun created several incarnations of the Java Platform with smaller API requirements for embedded and consumer systems:
the Java Personal Platform (for consumer devices)
the Java Embedded Platform (for embedded devices)
the Java Card Platform (for SmartCards)
These Java Platforms are composed of a Java virtual machine and a smaller shell of runtime libraries than are available in the standard Java Platform. The difference between the standard and the Personal Platform, therefore, is that the Personal Platform guarantees the availability of fewer Java API runtime libraries. The Embedded Platform guarantees fewer APIs than the Personal Platform, and the Card Platform fewer than the Embedded. Yet although each platform addresses a progressively smaller execution environment, with progressively tighter constraints on resources, the APIs are not necessarily subsets of each other. Each API subset is geared towards a particular target, and therefore include just the APIs that make sense for that target.
In addition to guaranteeing the smallest set of APIs, the Card Platform, which is targeted at SmartCards, uses only a subset of the full Java virtual machine instruction set. Only a subset of the features of the Java language are supported by this smaller instruction set. As a result, only Java programs that restrict themselves to features available on the Card Platform can run on a SmartCard.
Although Sun attempted to address the special API needs of the embedded and consumer markets with these three subsets, the special API needs of these markets turned out to be a bit too heterogeneous for the three API subsets to adequately address. Because of the special constraints of embedded systems, especially the small memory footprint and lack of disk storage, vendors of embedded systems are often under tremendous economic pressure to pick and choose APIs. Because of the low price points for embedded devices, vendors often simply can't afford to include APIs that aren't directly needed by their device. Despite the three subsets defined by Sun, vendors still felt the need to define and support their own API subsets.
Eventually, Sun recognized their three subsets wouldn't suffice, and changed their approach to defining API standards for the embedded and consumer worlds. Instead of trying to define one-API-fits-all subsets, such as Personal and Embedded Java, Sun defined a very minimal API set they called the Java 2 Platform, Micro Edition (J2ME). On top of J2ME, Sun planned to facilitate the definition of API subsets by individual industry segments appropriate for their market niche (such as automobile, TV set-top box, screenphone, wireless pagers and cell-phones, personal digital assistents, etc.). Sun called these API subsets "profiles." The old Personal and Embedded platforms become profiles in the new approach.
Because the Java Platform is compact, it can be implemented on a wide variety of embedded and consumer systems. The potential compactness of the Java Platform, however, does not restrict implementation at the opposite end of the spectrum. The Java Platform also scales up to personal computers, workstations, and mainframes. Although in Java's early years, Java Virtual Machine implementation had scaling difficulties on the server side, virtual machines were tuned for servers and now many implementations yield very good performance on the server side. At this end of the spectrum, Sun has defined an API superset: the Java 2 Enterprise Edition (J2EE). In addition to the standard Java APIs, the J2EE includes other APIs that are useful in enterprise server environments, such as servlets and Enterprise JavaBeans.
In the end, Sun's revised approach to defining APIs yielded three basic API sets, which demonstrate the scaleability of the Java Platform:
- Enterprise Edition (J2EE)
- Standard Edition (J2SE)
- Micro Edition (J2ME)
At the high end, the existence of the Enterprise Edition signifies the utility of the Java Platform in high-end servers. In the middle, the Standard Edition carries on the tradition, started by Applets in browsers, of the Java Platform on the desktop. At the low end, the Micro Edition, augmented with industry profiles, shows that the Java Platform can scale down and mold itself to meet the requirements of a great variety of consumer and embedded environments.
Factors that Influence Platform Independence
Java's architecture facilitates the creation of platform-independent software, but also allows you to create software that is platform-specific. When you write a Java program, platform independence is an option.
The degree of platform independence of any Java program depends on several factors. As a developer, some of these factors are beyond your control, but most are within your control. Primarily, the degree of platform independence of any Java program you write depends on how you write it.
Java Platform Deployment
The most basic factor determining the a Java program's platform independence is the extent to which the Java Platform has been deployed on multiple platforms. Java programs will only run on computers and devices that host a Java Platform. Thus, before one of your Java programs will run on a particular computer owned by, say, your friend Alicia, two things must happen. First, the Java Platform must be ported to Alicia's particular type of hardware and operating system. Once the port has been done by some Java Platform vendor, that port must in some way get installed on Alicia's computer. So a critical factor determining the true extent of platform independence of Java programs--and one that is beyond the control of the average developer--is the availability of Java Platform implementations and their distribution.
Fortunately for the Java developer, the deployment of the Java Platform has proceeded with great momentum, starting with Web-browsers, then moving on to desktop, workstation, network operating systems, and into many different kinds of consumer and embedded devices. It is increasingly likely, therefore, that your friend Alicia will have a Java Platform implementation on her computer or device.
The Java Platform Version and Edition
The deployment of the Java Platform is a bit more complicated, however, because not all standard runtime libraries are guaranteed to be available at every Java Platform. The basic set of libraries guaranteed to be available at a Java Platform is called the standard API. Sun calls a 1.2 Java virtual machine accompanied by the class files that constitute the standard API the Java 2 Platform, Standard EditionThis edition of the Java Platform has the minimum set of Java API libraries that you can assume will be available at desktop computers and workstations. But as described earlier, Sun also defines API sets for the Micro and Enterprise Editions of the Java 2 Platform, and encourages the development of API profiles to augment the Micro Edition in various consumer and embedded industry segments. In addition, Sun defines some standard runtime libraries that it considers as optional for the Standard Edition, and calls these Standard Extension APIs. These libraries include such services as telephony, commerce, and media such as audio, video, or 3D. If your program uses libraries from the Standard Extension API, it will run anywhere those standard extension API libraries are available, but not on a computer that implements only the basic Standard Edition Platform. Some of the Standard Extension APIs, on the other hand, are guaranteed to be available at any implementation of the Enterprise Edition. Given the variety of API editions and profiles, the Java 2 Platform hardly represents a single homogeneous execution environment that will in all cases enable code that is written once to run anywhere.
Another complicating factor is that in a sense the Java Platform is a moving target--it evolves over time. Although the Java virtual machine is likely to evolve very gradually, the Java API will probably change more frequently. Over time, features will be added to and removed from both the Standard Edition and Standard Extension APIs, and parts of the Standard Extension API may migrate into the Standard Edition. The changes made to the Java Platform should for the most part be upwards compatible, meaning they won't break existing Java programs, but some changes may not be. As obsolete features are removed in a new version of the Java Platform, existing Java programs that depend upon those features won't run on the new version. Also, changes may not be downwards compatible, meaning programs that are compiled for a new version of the Java Platform won't necessarily work on an old version. The dynamic nature of the Java Platform complicates things somewhat for the developer wishing to write a Java program that will run on any computer.
In theory, your program should run on all computers that host a Java 2 Platform, Standard Edition, so long as you depend only upon the runtime libraries in the standard API. In practice, however, new versions of the standard API will take time to percolate everywhere. When your program depends on newly added features of the latest version of the standard API, there may be some hosts that can't run it because they have an older version. This is not a new problem to software developers--programs written for Windows 95, for example, didn't work on the previous version of the operating system, Windows 3.1--but because Java enables the network delivery of software, it becomes a more acute problem. The promise of Java is not only that it is easy to port programs from one platform to another, but that the same piece of binary Java code can be sent across the network and run on any computer or device.
As a developer, you can't control the release cycles or deployment schedules of the Java Platform, but you can choose the Java Platform edition and version that your programs depend upon. In practice, therefore, you will have to decide when a new version of the Java Platform has been distributed to a great enough extent to justify writing programs for that version.